The bending technology area covers all manner of machines and processes for bending sheet metal, especially press brakes, folders, and panel benders. Press brakes are the most common bending equipment in fabricating shops. In a press brake, sheet metal is held in place by clamps between a matching punch and die, and the machine’s ram, with punch attached, moves downward to form a predetermined bend. A folding machine relies on a swinging beam that folds the workpiece, which is positioned and held by clamping beam tools. In panel bending, the sheet is positioned below blank-holder tools, which descend and clamp the workpiece in place, with material protruding on the other side; the machine’s bending blades from above and below move to fold the metal. Other technologies covered in this area include corner formers, ironworkers, notchers, orbital formers, and roll benders.

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